What is Socialism?
Socialism is a theory or system of social organization. Based on public ownership otherwise known as collective or common ownership. Of the means of production. This theory advocates the vesting of the ownership and. Control of the means of production and distribution, which includes: tools, machinery. And factories used in the production of goods that it directly. Targeted at satisfying human needs.
According to Karl Marx’s theories. Socialism is the transitional period between capitalism and communism.
Countries that have not fully declared themselves as socialists in a. Constitution via their national name cannot be wholly defined as such.
Advantages of Socialism
The Socialist system eliminates the exploitation of workers because they are no longer exploited. They own the means of production. Under this system, profits are spread equitably among all. Workers according to their individual contributions.
Socialism also eliminates poverty. As it provides equal access to health care and education, where no one is discriminated against.
Under this system, everyone works at what he/she is best at and enjoys. In a situation where society needs. jobs to be carried out that no one wants, it offers higher compensation to make it worthwhile for people to take them up.
Disadvantages of Socialism
Socialism does not reward people for their entrepreneurial skills. This is because it strives to be as innovative as a capitalistic society.
The most glaring disadvantage of socialism would perhaps be the fact that it relies on the cooperative nature of humans to work. This means that it ignores those within society who are competitive and focuses on personal gain.
Under the socialist system, the government posses a lot of power, which works as long as it represents the wishes of the people. However, government leaders can take advantage of this position and claim power for themselves.
Countries Declared as Socialist
The following countries as declared as Socialist countries:
- Firstly, the Republic of Angola
- Also, the Republic of Mozambique
- Thirdly, the Portuguese Republic
- Fourthly, the Republic of India
- People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
- United Republic of Tanzania
- People’s Republic of Bangladesh
- Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
- Lastly, cooperative Republic of Guyana
Types of Socialism
Socialism consists of eight types. Now, they differ on how capitalism can best be turned into socialism, and emphasize different aspects of socialism.
Under this system, the means of production are managed by the working people, and there is also a democratically elected government. Democratic planning is mostly utilized for common goods, like mass transit, housing, and energy, while the free market on the other hand is allowed to produce and distribute consumer goods.
Here, socialism will only emerge after capitalism has been overthrown, although the revolution is not necessarily a violent one. Here also, the factors of production are owned by the workers and managed by them via central planning.
Libertarianism is of the school of thought that, the basic nature of people is rational, autonomous, and self-determining. Thus once the strictures of capitalism have been removed, people will naturally seek a Socialist society, one that takes care of all, free of economic, political, or social hierarchies.
This is where production is owned by the workers. The workers decide how to distribute among themselves. These workers could sell excess production on the free market, and alternatively, it could be turned over to society, which might distribute it according to the free market.
Green socialisms is one that highly values the maintenance of natural resources. Here public ownership of large corporations archives this. It also emphasizes public transit and locally sourced food, and production focuses on ensuring everyone has enough of the basics rather than of consumer products one does not necessarily need.
This system bothers on Christian teachings of brotherhood, which are the same values expressed by socialism.
This is an idea that arose before massive industrialization and would have been achieved peacefully via a series of experimental societies. It was more of a vision of equality than a concrete plan.
This was a system extolled by a British organization known as the Fabian Society in the late 1900s. This system advocated a gradual change to socialism via laws, elections, as well as other peaceful means.